• Test code: 06154
  • Turnaround time:
    10–21 calendar days (14 days on average)
  • Preferred specimen:
    3mL whole blood in a purple-top tube
  • Alternate specimens:
    DNA or saliva/assisted saliva
  • Sample requirements
  • Request a sample kit

Invitae Glucose Transporter Type 1 (GLUT1) Deficiency Syndrome Test

Test description

The Invitae Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome Test analyzes the SLC2A1 gene, whose pathogenic variants cause glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS), which is associated with low glucose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid and related neurometabolic symptoms. Genetic testing of this gene may confirm a diagnosis and help guide treatment and management decisions. Identification of a disease-causing variant would also guide testing and diagnosis of at-risk relatives.

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Primary panel (1 gene)

Alternative tests to consider

The also offers broad epilepsy panel that have been designed to provide a genetic analysis of epilepsy disorders. Depending on the individual’s clinical and family history, one of these broader panels may be appropriate as an alternative to this test. They can be ordered at no additional cost.

  • glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS)

The SLC2A1 gene encodes the glucose transporter type 1 protein (Glut1), which is responsible for glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier to meet the energy demands of the brain. Pathogenic variants in SLC2A1 disrupt Glut1 protein function and cause GLUT1DS.

GLUT1DS is a treatable neurometabolic disorder. The biochemical hallmark of GLUT1DS is hypoglycorrhachia (low glucose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid) with normal blood-glucose level. Neurological symptoms may be categorized into three domains: seizures, movement disorders, and cognitive or behavioral disturbances. The classic GLUT1DS phenotype is characterized by persistent symptoms involving all three domains. Patients with milder phenotypes may manifest intermittent or persistent symptoms in only one or two domains.

The classic phenotype of GLUT1DS includes infantile-onset seizures, developmental delay, acquired microcephaly, and complex movement disorders. Seizures vary in frequency, severity, and types and may include generalized tonic or clonic, focal, myoclonic, atypical absence, atonic, and unclassified seizures. GLUT1DS-associated seizures are usually refractory to anticonvulsants but can often be substantially improved with a ketogenic diet. Patients are sensitive to fasting or exertion and typically develop cognitive impairment that ranges from learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability. Patients with milder forms of epilepsy, with non-epileptic syndromes that are characterized by both persistent and paroxysmal movement disorders, and with varying degrees of cognitive impairment have also been recognized.

SLC2A1 is the only gene in which pathogenic variants are known to cause GLUT1DS. More than 95% of the patients with symptoms consistent with this condition will have a pathogenic variant in the SLC2A1 gene.

The vast majority of identified GLUT1DS patients have one de novo pathogenic variant in the SLC2A1 gene. The disease is primarily inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, although rare cases of autosomal recessive transmission have been reported.

The estimated prevalence of GLUT1DS in Queensland, Australia, is approximately 1 in 90,000. A point prevalence of GLUT1DS in Norway was estimated at 2.6 in 1,000,000 inhabitants. These rates are likely underestimated because ascertainment of cases is biased by physician awareness of this condition.

Patients with clinical symptoms of GLUT1DS or hypoglycorrhachia with a lumbar puncture showing a low CSF glucose level (< 60mg/dL absolute value) and a normal blood-glucose level are candidates for this test. Particularly good candidates are patients who also show a reduced erythrocyte glucose uptake in the 3-O-methyl-D-Glucose assay. Testing of additional family members of a patient with a known pathogenic SLC2A1 may be warranted.

  1. Leen, WG, et al. Glucose transporter-1 deficiency syndrome: the expanding clinical and genetic spectrum of a treatable disorder. Brain. 2010; 133(Pt 3):655-70. doi: 10.1093/brain/awp336. PMID: 20129935
  2. Wang, D, et al. Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome. 2002 Jul 30. In: Pagon, RA, et al, editors. GeneReviews(®) (Internet). University of Washington, Seattle. PMID: 20301603
  3. De, Vivo, DC, Wang, D. Glut1 deficiency: CSF glucose. How low is too low?. Rev. Neurol. (Paris). 2008; 164(11):877-80. PMID: 18990414
  4. Leen, WG, et al. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome into adulthood: a follow-up study. J. Neurol. 2014; 261(3):589-99. PMID: 24413642
  5. Pearson, TS, et al. Phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2013; 13(4):342. PMID: 23443458
  6. Coman, DJ, et al. Seizures, ataxia, developmental delay and the general paediatrician: glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome. J Paediatr Child Health. 2006; 42(5):263-7. PMID: 16712556
  7. Ramm-Pettersen, A, et al. Good outcome in patients with early dietary treatment of GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome: results from a retrospective Norwegian study. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013; 55(5):440-7. PMID: 23448551
  8. De, Giorgis, V, Veggiotti, P. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome 2013: current state of the art. Seizure. 2013; 22(10):803-11. PMID: 23890838
  9. Klepper, J. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome in clinical practice. Epilepsy Res. 2012; 100(3):272-7. PMID: 21382692
  10. Hully, M, et al. From splitting GLUT1 deficiency syndromes to overlapping phenotypes. Eur J Med Genet. 2015; 58(9):443-54. PMID: 26193382
  11. Yang, H, et al. Glut1 deficiency syndrome and erythrocyte glucose uptake assay. Ann. Neurol. 2011; 70(6):996-1005. doi: 10.1002/ana.22640. PMID: 22190371

Assay and technical information

Invitae is a College of American Pathologists (CAP)-accredited and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified clinical diagnostic laboratory performing full-gene sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis using next-generation sequencing technology (NGS).

Our sequence analysis covers clinically important regions of each gene, including coding exons and 10 to 20 base pairs of adjacent intronic sequence on either side of the coding exons in the transcript listed below. In addition, the analysis covers the select non-coding variants specifically defined in the table below. Any variants that fall outside these regions are not analyzed. Any limitations in the analysis of these genes will be listed on the report. Contact client services with any questions.

Based on validation study results, this assay achieves >99% analytical sensitivity and specificity for single nucleotide variants, insertions and deletions <15bp in length, and exon-level deletions and duplications. Invitae's methods also detect insertions and deletions larger than 15bp but smaller than a full exon but sensitivity for these may be marginally reduced. Invitae’s deletion/duplication analysis determines copy number at a single exon resolution at virtually all targeted exons. However, in rare situations, single-exon copy number events may not be analyzed due to inherent sequence properties or isolated reduction in data quality. Certain types of variants, such as structural rearrangements (e.g. inversions, gene conversion events, translocations, etc.) or variants embedded in sequence with complex architecture (e.g. short tandem repeats or segmental duplications), may not be detected. Additionally, it may not be possible to fully resolve certain details about variants, such as mosaicism, phasing, or mapping ambiguity. Unless explicitly guaranteed, sequence changes in the promoter, non-coding exons, and other non-coding regions are not covered by this assay. Please consult the test definition on our website for details regarding regions or types of variants that are covered or excluded for this test. This report reflects the analysis of an extracted genomic DNA sample. In very rare cases, (circulating hematolymphoid neoplasm, bone marrow transplant, recent blood transfusion) the analyzed DNA may not represent the patient's constitutional genome.

Gene Transcript reference Sequencing analysis Deletion/Duplication analysis
SLC2A1 NM_006516.2