Invitae Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Panel


Test description

The Invitae Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Panel analyzes 30 genes that are associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a condition with phenotypic features that include chronic respiratory tract infections, fertility problems, and a reversal of the internal organs (known as situs inversus). These genes were selected based on the available evidence to date to provide Invitae’s most comprehensive test for PCD.

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Primary panel (30 genes)


Add-on preliminary-evidence gene (1 gene)

Preliminary-evidence genes currently have early evidence of a clinical association with the specific disease covered by this test. Some clinicians may wish to include a gene which does not currently have a definitive clinical association, but which may prove to be clinically significant in the future. This gene can be added at no additional charge. Visit our Preliminary-evidence genes page to learn more.


Add-on cystic fibrosis gene (1 gene)

Many of the clinical features of PCD overlap with those of cystic fibrosis, including persistent sinusitis, chronic pneumonia, and bronchiectasis. If CFTR sequencing has not previously been performed, adding the CFTR test to this analysis may be appropriate. It is recommended that patients with probable PCD should be screened for pathogenic CFTR variants to rule out the possibility of cystic fibrosis. This gene can be included at no additional charge.


CFTR: Analysis includes the intronic variants: NM_000492.3:c.3718-2477C>T (also known as 3849+10kbC>T), c.1210-34TG[12]T[5] (also known as T5TG12), c.1210-34TG[11]T[5] (also known as T5TG11), and c.1679+1634A>G.

Alternative tests to consider

Nearly half of all PCD patients have some form of a congenital heart defect (CHD), (Kennedy et al. 2007) and a similarly large fraction of patients born with a CHD (30%) have some indication of PCD (Nakhleh et al. 2012). Given the significant overlap between PCD and CHD and the difficulty in differentiating between PCD and non-PCD related heart defects early in life, analyzing the genes associated with congenital heart disease may be appropriate. If clinically indicated, the Invitae Congenital Heart Disease including Ciliopathies Panel includes genes associated with congenital heart defects and ciliopathies and can be ordered instead of this panel at no additional charge.

  • primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD)

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic defect affecting the cilia—hair-like structures on the surface of cells. Ciliary movement in the lungs, nasal passageways, and ear canals protect the airways from infections. Ciliary movement is also important in the developing embryo as the internal organs are being positioned. Many patients with PCD are born with their internal organs reversed or mirrored from their original positions—a condition known as situs inversus totalis. Most patients present with neonatal respiratory distress during the first week of life and nearly all develop a chronic, wet-sounding cough to help compensate for the loss of ciliary movement in the lungs. Recurrent bacterial infections in the lower airways and nasal passageways often lead to chronic or recurrent pneumonia, sinusitis, and otitis media. PCD is a progressive disease that typically results in bronchiectasis, and some patients will develop severe lung disease and require a lung transplant as adults.

Approximately 50%-70% of patients with a strong clinical suspicion of PCD are expected to have a pathogenic variant in one of the genes on this panel.

The majority of PCD cases are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Two genetic subtypes are inherited in an X-linked pattern:

  • RPGR is associated with a complex form of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and PCD.
  • OFD1 is associated with a complex form of X-linked mental retardation and PCD.

Nearly all patients with a molecular diagnosis of PCD (i.e., two mutations in the same gene) have a chronic wet cough (99%), chronic nasal congestion (97%), and chronic or recurrent ear infections (92%). In most cases, these respiratory symptoms present within the first month of life, and approximately 80% of newborns with PCD require supplemental oxygen during the first 10-15 days in the hospital. About half of all individuals with PCD are found to have laterality defects, including situs inversus and heterotaxy. If left undiagnosed and untreated, most individuals will develop severe respiratory failure and will likely need a lung transplant.

The prevalence of PCD is estimated at 1 in 15,000 to 20,000 individuals.

This test may be appropriate for:

  • patients with laterality defects, such as situs inversus, situs ambiguous, or heterotaxy
  • term infants with unexplained respiratory distress
  • children with a history of a chronic, wet-sounding cough that is associated with persistent rhinosinusitus or otitis media
  • adults with bronchiectasis

  1. Barbato, A, et al. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a consensus statement on diagnostic and treatment approaches in children. Eur. Respir. J. 2009; 34(6):1264-76. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00176608. PMID: 19948909
  2. Davis, SD, et al. Clinical features of childhood primary ciliary dyskinesia by genotype and ultrastructural phenotype. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2015; 191(3):316-24. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201409-1672OC. PMID: 25493340
  3. Kennedy, MP, et al. Congenital heart disease and other heterotaxic defects in a large cohort of patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia. Circulation. 2007; 115(22):2814-21. PMID: 17515466
  4. Leigh, MW, et al. Clinical and genetic aspects of primary ciliary dyskinesia/Kartagener syndrome. Genet. Med. 2009; 11(7):473-87. PMID: 19606528
  5. Lobo, J, et al. Primary ciliary dyskinesia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2015; 36(2):169-79. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1546748. PMID: 25826585
  6. Moalem, S, et al. Broadening the ciliopathy spectrum: motile cilia dyskinesia, and nephronophthisis associated with a previously unreported homozygous mutation in the INVS/NPHP2 gene. Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 2013; 161A(7):1792-6. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36036. PMID: 23713026
  7. Nakhleh, N, et al. High prevalence of respiratory ciliary dysfunction in congenital heart disease patients with heterotaxy. Circulation. 2012; 125(18):2232-42. PMID: 22499950
  8. Zariwala, MA, et al. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. 2007 Jan 24. In: Pagon, RA, et al, editors. GeneReviews (Internet). University of Washington, Seattle; Available from: PMID: 20301301

Assay and technical information

Invitae is a College of American Pathologists (CAP)-accredited and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified clinical diagnostic laboratory performing full-gene sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis using next-generation sequencing technology (NGS).

Our sequence analysis covers clinically important regions of each gene, including coding exons, +/- 10 base pairs of adjacent intronic sequence, and select noncoding variants. Our assay provides a Q30 quality-adjusted mean coverage depth of 350x (50x minimum, or supplemented with additional analysis). Variants classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic are confirmed with orthogonal methods, except individual variants that have high quality scores and previously validated in at least ten unrelated samples.

Our analysis detects most intragenic deletions and duplications at single exon resolution. However, in rare situations, single-exon copy number events may not be analyzed due to inherent sequence properties or isolated reduction in data quality. If you are requesting the detection of a specific single-exon copy number variation, please contact Client Services before placing your order.

Gene Transcript reference Sequencing analysis Deletion/Duplication analysis
ARMC4 NM_018076.2
C21orf59 NM_021254.2
CCDC103 NM_213607.2
CCDC114 NM_144577.3
CCDC151 NM_145045.4
CCDC39 NM_181426.1
CCDC40 NM_017950.3
CCDC65 NM_033124.4
CCNO NM_021147.4
CFTR* NM_000492.3
DNAAF1 NM_178452.4
DNAAF2 NM_018139.2
DNAAF3 NM_001256714.1
DNAAF5 NM_017802.3
DNAH11 NM_001277115.1
DNAH5 NM_001369.2
DNAH8 NM_001206927.1
DNAI1 NM_012144.3
DNAI2 NM_023036.4
DNAL1 NM_031427.3
DRC1 NM_145038.3
DYX1C1 NM_130810.3
INVS NM_014425.3
MCIDAS NM_001190787.1
NME8 NM_016616.4
OFD1 NM_003611.2
RPGR NM_000328.2
RSPH1 NM_080860.3
RSPH4A NM_001010892.2
RSPH9 NM_152732.4
SPAG1 NM_172218.2
ZMYND10 NM_015896.2

CFTR: Analysis includes the intronic variants: NM_000492.3:c.3718-2477C>T (also known as 3849+10kbC>T), c.1210-34TG[12]T[5] (also known as T5TG12), c.1210-34TG[11]T[5] (also known as T5TG11), and c.1679+1634A>G.