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  • Test code: 02251
  • Turnaround time:
    10–21 calendar days (14 days on average)
  • Preferred specimen:
    3mL whole blood in a purple-top tube
  • Alternate specimens:
    DNA or saliva/assisted saliva
  • Sample requirements
  • Request a sample kit
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Invitae Cardiomyopathy Comprehensive Panel

Test description

This test provides a comprehensive analysis of the genes associated with inherited cardiomyopathy conditions. Given the clinical overlap between different cardiomyopathy conditions, comprehensive testing enables a more efficient evaluation of multiple conditions based on a single indication.

Individuals with clinical symptoms of an inherited cardiomyopathy may benefit from diagnostic genetic testing to establish or confirm diagnosis, clarify risks, or inform management. Asymptomatic individuals within a family with a known pathogenic variant may also benefit by avoiding activities and medications that can trigger symptoms.

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Primary panel (50 genes)

ABCC9 ACTC1 ACTN2 AGL BAG3 CACNA1C CAV3 CRYAB CSRP3 DES DMD DOLK DSC2 DSG2 DSP EMD EYA4 FHL1 FKRP FKTN FLNC GAA GLA HCN4 JUP LAMP2 LMNA MYBPC3 MYH7 MYL2 MYL3 PKP2 PLN PRKAG2 RAF1 RBM20 RYR2 SCN5A SGCD SLC22A5 TAZ TCAP TMEM43 TNNC1 TNNI3 TNNT2 TPM1 TTN TTR VCL

Add-on Preliminary-evidence Genes for Cardiomyopathy (30 genes)

Preliminary-evidence genes currently have early evidence of a clinical association with the specific disease covered by this test. Some clinicians may wish to include a gene which does not currently have a definitive clinical association, but which may prove to be clinically significant in the future. This gene can be added at no additional charge. Visit our Preliminary-evidence genes page to learn more.

ANKRD1 CALR3 CHRM2 CTF1 CTNNA3 DTNA FHL2 GATA4 GATA6 GATAD1 ILK JPH2 LAMA4 LDB3 LRRC10 MYH6 MYLK2 MYOM1 MYOZ2 MYPN NEBL NEXN NKX2-5 NPPA PDLIM3 PLEKHM2 PRDM16 TGFB3 TMPO TXNRD2

Add-on RASopathy Genes (17 genes)

Structural heart defects or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are also a common feature of RASopathy conditions. Clinicians can also choose to include genes associated with RASopathy conditions when placing their order at no additional charge.

A2ML1 BRAF CBL HRAS KRAS MAP2K1 MAP2K2 NF1 NRAS PTPN11 RASA1 RIT1 RRAS SHOC2 SOS1 SOS2 SPRED1

Add-on Autosomal Recessive Syndromic Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Genes (8 genes)

Genes associated with early-onset cardiomyopathy as part of an autosomal recessive disorder may be included at no additional charge. Clinicians may wish to include these genes for patients who present in infancy or early childhood with clinical features of a multi-system disorder.

ACADVL ALMS1 CPT2 DNAJC19 ELAC2 MTO1 SDHA TMEM70

Alternative tests to consider

The Invitae Arrhythmia and Cardiomyopathy Comprehensive panel has been designed to provide a broad genetic analysis of arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy. Depending on the individual’s clinical and family history, this broader panel may be appropriate. This broader panel can be ordered at no additional charge.

  • arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)
  • dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)
  • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
  • Fabry disease
  • left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC)
  • transthyretin amyloidosis
  • genes on this panel are also associated with other disorders

Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle that causes the heart to thicken, enlarge, or become rigid. These changes to the cardiac muscle cause the heart to weaken and may lead to heart failure. Cardiomyopathy can be acquired, often from another type of disease, or it can be inherited. The most common types of inherited cardiomyopathy include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM).

Cardiomyopathy may also be one feature of a multi-system disorder, such as Noonan syndrome, Fabry disease, Barth syndrome, Danon disease, glycogen storage disease, transthyretin amyloidosis, various types of muscular dystrophy or myopathy, or combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency. Please note that the genes associated with Noonan syndrome and/or autosomal recessive syndromic pediatric cardiomyopathy can be included when placing an order for this test.

The clinical sensitivity of this test is dependent on the patient’s underlying genetic condition. This test covers all of the common genetic causes of the hereditary cardiomyopathy conditions HCM, DCM, LVNC, and ARVC. For each condition, the chart below shows the percentage of clinical cases in which a pathogenic variant is expected to be identified in one of the genes on this panel.

Clinical sensitivity by underlying condition
ARVC DCM HCM LVNC
50% 20%-40% 40%-60% 20%-30%

The majority of inherited cardiomyopathy conditions exhibit an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Alternate inheritance patterns are listed below.

Autosomal recessive conditions

  • 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type V
  • AGL-related glycogen storage disorder
  • Alstrom syndrome
  • Carvajal syndrome
  • combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency due to ELAC2, MTO1 or SDHA
  • CPT II deficiency
  • DOLK-related congenital disorder of glycosylation
  • Naxos syndrome
  • Pompe disease
  • primary carnitine deficiency
  • TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency
  • VLCAD deficiency

X-linked conditions

  • Barth syndrome
  • Danon disease
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy
  • Fabry disease

Most genetic forms of cardiomyopathy exhibit reduced penetrance, meaning that not everyone who inherits a predisposition to develop cardiomyopathy will go on to manifest the disorder. Individuals with a genetic predisposition to develop cardiomyopathy have an increased risk for cardiomyopathy at any age and frequently present with symptoms at younger ages compared to individuals with acquired cardiomyopathy. Symptoms are variable, even among affected members of the same family.

The age of onset and penetrance of syndromic causes of cardiomyopathy is dependent on the disorder. For example, Barth syndrome and Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy commonly present in males in childhood, while cardiomyopathy due to Fabry disease or transthyretin amyloidosis often does not present until mid to late adulthood.

The prevalence of genetic forms of cardiomyopathy is dependent on the underlying condition.

ConditionEstimated prevalenceAdditional information
HCM~1 in 500Recently, the prevalence has been suggested to be as high as 1 in 200 individuals.
DCM~1 in 2,500 to 1 in 3,000 
ARVC~1 in 2,000 to ~1:5,000Prevalence is increased in Italy and Greece, where it can be as high as 1 in 125 to 1 in 250.

This test may be considered for individuals with:

  • unexplained cardiomyopathy
  • cardiomyopathy that may be consistent with multiple genetic cardiomyopathy conditions

  1. Ackerman MJ, et al. HRS/EHRA expert consensus statement on the state of genetic testing for the channelopathies and cardiomyopathies this document was developed as a partnership between the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA). 2011 Heart Rhythm Aug; 8(8):1308-1339. PMID: 21787999
  2. Hershberger RE, et al. Genetic evaluation of cardiomyopathy--a Heart Failure Society of America practice guideline. 2009 J Card Fail. Mar; 15(2):83-97. PMID: 19254666
  3. Hershberger, RE, Morales, A. Dilated Cardiomyopathy Overview. 2007 Jul 27. In: Pagon, RA, et al, editors. GeneReviews(®) (Internet). University of Washington, Seattle. PMID: 20301486
  4. Hoedemaekers YM, et al. The importance of genetic counseling, DNA diagnostics, and cardiologic family screening in left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy. 2010 Circ Cardiovasc Genet Jun;3(3):232-239 PMID: 20530761
  5. January CT, et al. AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. 2014 J Am Coll Cardiol. Dec; 2:64(21):e1-76. PMID: 24685669
  6. McNally EM, et al. Genetic mutations and mechanisms in dilated cardiomyopathy. 2013 J Clin Invest. Jan;123(1):19-26. PMID: 23281406
  7. McNally, E, et al. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy. 2005 Apr 18. In: Pagon, RA, et al, editors. GeneReviews (Internet). University of Washington, Seattle; Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1131/ PMID: 20301310
  8. NCBI GeneReviews. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Overview. PMID: 20301725
  9. Pinamonti B, et al. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: From genetics to diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. 2014 World J Cardiol. Dec 26:6(12):1234-44. PMID: 25548613
  10. Pugh TJ, et al. The landscape of genetic variation in dilated cardiomyopathy as surveyed by clinical DNA sequencing. 2014 Genet Med Aug; 16(8):601-608. PMID: 24503780
  11. Semsarian C, et al. New perspectives on the prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 2015 J Am Coll Cardiol. Mar 31;65(12):1249-1254. PMID: 25814232

For links to published management guidelines for cardiology conditions, please refer to our Management guidelines page.

Assay and technical information

Invitae is a College of American Pathologists (CAP)-accredited and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified clinical diagnostic laboratory performing full-gene sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis using next-generation sequencing technology (NGS).

Our sequence analysis covers clinically important regions of each gene, including coding exons, +/- 10 base pairs of adjacent intronic sequence, and select noncoding variants. Our assay provides a Q30 quality-adjusted mean coverage depth of 350x (50x minimum, or supplemented with additional analysis). Variants classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic are confirmed with orthogonal methods, except individual variants that have high quality scores and previously validated in at least ten unrelated samples.

Our analysis detects most intragenic deletions and duplications at single exon resolution. However, in rare situations, single-exon copy number events may not be analyzed due to inherent sequence properties or isolated reduction in data quality. If you are requesting the detection of a specific single-exon copy number variation, please contact Client Services before placing your order.

Assay notes

Please note that TTN has multiple transcripts. Testing and variant nomenclature for TTN is based on the transcript NM_001267550.2, which includes exons of TTN that are not expressed in the heart. The analysis and interpretation is performed using the clinically-relevant transcript, NM_133378.4, which includes the exons of TTN expressed in the heart.

Gene Transcript reference Sequencing analysis Deletion/Duplication analysis
A2ML1 NM_144670.4
ABCC9 NM_005691.3
ACADVL NM_000018.3
ACTC1 NM_005159.4
ACTN2 NM_001103.3
AGL NM_000642.2
ALMS1 NM_015120.4
ANKRD1* NM_014391.2
BAG3 NM_004281.3
BRAF NM_004333.4
CACNA1C NM_000719.6
CALR3 NM_145046.4
CAV3 NM_033337.2
CBL NM_005188.3
CHRM2 NM_000739.2
CPT2 NM_000098.2
CRYAB NM_001885.2
CSRP3 NM_003476.4
CTF1 NM_001330.3
CTNNA3 NM_013266.3
DES NM_001927.3
DMD* NM_004006.2
DNAJC19 NM_145261.3
DOLK NM_014908.3
DSC2 NM_024422.4
DSG2 NM_001943.3
DSP NM_004415.2
DTNA NM_032978.6
ELAC2 NM_018127.6
EMD NM_000117.2
EYA4 NM_004100.4
FHL1 NM_001449.4; NM_001159702.2
FHL2 NM_201555.1
FKRP NM_024301.4
FKTN* NM_001079802.1
FLNC NM_001458.4
GAA* NM_000152.3
GATA4 NM_002052.3
GATA6 NM_005257.5
GATAD1 NM_021167.4
GLA* NM_000169.2
HCN4 NM_005477.2
HRAS NM_005343.2
ILK NM_004517.3
JPH2 NM_020433.4
JUP NM_002230.2
KRAS NM_004985.4
LAMA4 NM_002290.4
LAMP2 NM_002294.2; NM_013995.2
LDB3 NM_001080116.1; NM_001171610.1; NM_007078.2
LMNA NM_170707.3; NM_005572.3
LRRC10 NM_201550.3
MAP2K1 NM_002755.3
MAP2K2 NM_030662.3
MTO1 NM_012123.3
MYBPC3* NM_000256.3
MYH6 NM_002471.3
MYH7 NM_000257.3
MYL2 NM_000432.3
MYL3 NM_000258.2
MYLK2 NM_033118.3
MYOM1 NM_003803.3
MYOZ2 NM_016599.4
MYPN NM_032578.3
NEBL NM_006393.2
NEXN NM_144573.3
NF1 NM_000267.3
NKX2-5 NM_004387.3; NM_004387.3
NPPA NM_006172.3
NRAS NM_002524.4
PDLIM3 NM_014476.5
PKP2 NM_004572.3
PLEKHM2 NM_015164.2
PLN NM_002667.3
PRDM16 NM_022114.3
PRKAG2 NM_016203.3
PTPN11 NM_002834.3
RAF1 NM_002880.3
RASA1 NM_002890.2
RBM20 NM_001134363.2
RIT1 NM_006912.5
RRAS NM_006270.4
RYR2 NM_001035.2
SCN5A NM_198056.2
SDHA* NM_004168.3
SGCD NM_000337.5
SHOC2 NM_007373.3
SLC22A5 NM_003060.3
SOS1 NM_005633.3
SOS2 NM_006939.2
SPRED1 NM_152594.2
TAZ NM_000116.4
TCAP NM_003673.3
TGFB3 NM_003239.3
TMEM43 NM_024334.2
TMEM70 NM_017866.5
TMPO NM_003276.2
TNNC1 NM_003280.2
TNNI3 NM_000363.4
TNNT2 NM_001001430.2; NM_000364.3
TPM1 NM_001018005.1
TTN* NM_001267550.2
TTR NM_000371.3
TXNRD2 NM_006440.4
VCL NM_014000.2

ANKRD1: Deletion/duplication analysis is not offered for exons 3 or 4.
DMD: Analysis guarantees del/dup detection at single-exon resolution.
FKTN: Analysis includes the intronic variant NM_001079802.1:c.647+2084G>T (also known as NM_001079802.1:c.648-1243G>T) and the ~3 kb retrotransposon insertion in the 3' UTR at position NM_001079802​.1:c.*4392_*4393.
GAA: Analysis includes the promoter variant NM_000152.3:c.-32-13T>G as well as the common exon 18 deletion.
GLA: Analysis includes the intronic variant NM_000169.2:c.IVS4+919G>A.
MYBPC3: Analysis includes the intronic variant NM_000256.3:c.3628-41_3628-17del25.
SDHA: Analysis is limited to sequencing analysis. No clinically-relevant del/dups have been reported.
TTN: Deletion/duplication and sequencing analysis is not offered for exons 153-155 (NM_133378.4). Variants are named relative to the NM_001267550.2 (meta) transcript, but only variants in the coding sequence and intronic boundaries of the clinically relevant NM_133378.4 (N2A) isoform are reported (PMID: 25589632).