The GALNT12 gene currently has no well-established disease association; however, there is preliminary evidence supporting a correlation with autosomal dominant predisposition to colorectal cancer (MedGen UID: 324734, PMID: 19617566).
Order this gene as a single gene test.
Invitae tests that include this gene:
The GALNT12 gene encodes an enzyme that attaches sugars to proteins. These sugars are important for regulating the signaling of the Wnt and TGF-beta signaling pathways, which are known to be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.
MedGen UID: 324734
While there is currently no well-established data to associate the GALNT12 gene with a specific disease or condition, there is preliminary evidence suggesting variants in this gene may be associated with a predisposition to colorectal cancer (PMID: 22461326 19617566 ). These data, however, are currently insufficient to make a clear determination regarding this association. The risk for other cancers may be elevated in individuals with GALNT12 variants; however, this evidence is also limited and emerging.
GALNT12 is considered a “preliminary-evidence” gene by Invitae. Preliminary-evidence genes are selected from an extensive review of the literature and expert recommendations, but the association between the gene and the specific condition has not been completely established. This uncertainty may be resolved as new information becomes available, and therefore clinicians may continue to order these preliminary-evidence genes.
GALNT12 encodes a member of a family of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases, which catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) from UDP-GalNAc to a serine or threonine residue on a polypeptide acceptor in the initial step of O-linked protein glycosylation (NCBI Gene. Gene ID: 79695. Accessed March 2018).
Variants in GALNT12 have autosomal dominant inheritance. This means that an individual with a pathogenic variant has a 50% chance of passing that variant on to their offspring.
Because the evidence regarding GALNT12 heterozygotes and colon cancer risk is limited and preliminary, there are no guidelines or recommendations to suggest alterations to medical management based solely on the presence of a pathogenic GALNT12 variant. However, an individual’s cancer risk and medical management are not determined by genetic test results alone. Overall cancer risk assessment incorporates additional factors, including personal medical history, family history, and any available genetic information that may result in a personalized plan for cancer prevention and surveillance.
It is advantageous to know if an individual has a pathogenic variant in GALNT12. At-risk relatives can be identified, enabling pursuit of a diagnostic evaluation. Further, the available information regarding hereditary cancer susceptibility genes is constantly evolving and more clinically relevant data regarding GALNT12 are likely to become available in the near future. Awareness of this cancer predisposition encourages patients and their providers to inform at-risk family members, to diligently follow published screening protocols, and to be vigilant in maintaining close and regular contact with their local genetics clinic in anticipation of new information.
Referenced with permission from the NCCN Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal. Version 3.2017. © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2016. All rights reserved. Accessed February 2018. To view the most recent and complete version of the guideline, go online to NCCN.org.
The NCCN Guidelines are a work in progress that may be refined as often as new significant data becomes available. The NCCN Guidelines® are a statement of consensus of its authors regarding their views of currently accepted approaches to treatment. Any clinician seeking to apply or consult any NCCN Guidelines® is expected to use independent medical judgment in the context of individual clinical circumstances to determine any patient’s care or treatment. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network makes no warranties of any kind whatsoever regarding their content, use or application and disclaims any responsibility for their application or use in any way.
Review date: February 2018
Invitae is a College of American Pathologists (CAP)-accredited and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified clinical diagnostic laboratory performing full-gene sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis using next-generation sequencing technology (NGS).
Our sequence analysis covers clinically important regions of each gene, including coding exons and 10 to 20 base pairs of adjacent intronic sequence on either side of the coding exons in the transcript listed below. In addition, the analysis covers the select non-coding variants specifically defined in the table below. Any variants that fall outside these regions are not analyzed. Any limitations in the analysis of these genes will be listed on the report. Contact client services with any questions.
Based on validation study results, this assay achieves >99% analytical sensitivity and specificity for single nucleotide variants, insertions and deletions <15bp in length, and exon-level deletions and duplications. Invitae's methods also detect insertions and deletions larger than 15bp but smaller than a full exon but sensitivity for these may be marginally reduced. Invitae’s deletion/duplication analysis determines copy number at a single exon resolution at virtually all targeted exons. However, in rare situations, single-exon copy number events may not be analyzed due to inherent sequence properties or isolated reduction in data quality. Certain types of variants, such as structural rearrangements (e.g. inversions, gene conversion events, translocations, etc.) or variants embedded in sequence with complex architecture (e.g. short tandem repeats or segmental duplications), may not be detected. Additionally, it may not be possible to fully resolve certain details about variants, such as mosaicism, phasing, or mapping ambiguity. Unless explicitly guaranteed, sequence changes in the promoter, non-coding exons, and other non-coding regions are not covered by this assay. Please consult the test definition on our website for details regarding regions or types of variants that are covered or excluded for this test. This report reflects the analysis of an extracted genomic DNA sample. In very rare cases, (circulating hematolymphoid neoplasm, bone marrow transplant, recent blood transfusion) the analyzed DNA may not represent the patient's constitutional genome.
|Gene||Transcript reference||Sequencing analysis||Deletion/Duplication analysis|